Types of training and training methods – Improving PDHPE
Study Notes

– Aerobic

Aerobic training usually complies with the FITT principle.

Frequency – In order to be effective with aerobic training, individual’s need to train at least three times a week.

Intensity – There are a number of ways you can test intensity, such as the talk test and exertion rating scale. However, the most reliable and most used in training is by measuring the athlete’s heart rate.

When in aerobic training, the heart rate is typically between 70 percent to 85 percent of the max HR. You can measure your approximate maximum heart rate by minusing your age from 220. So for example, 220 – my age, 26, equals 194 beats per minute.

Time – For benefits in aerobic fitness to occur, a minimum of 20 minutes is recommended.

Type – There are an array of training types that individuals can use to create the aerobic capacity.

Continuous Training

This is where the individual will work at a constant pace, continuously (that is no stopping) for an extended period of time. At least 20 minutes of continuous training is needed for benefits to occur. This type of training would be beneficial for athletes who participate in endurance sports like marathon runs or triathlons, where the required strategy is to ensure movement constant and consistent throughout.

Fartlek Training

This training demands constant movement with bursts of high intensity movements every-so-often within the session. So two examples could include, an athlete could run with a constant pace at 65% intensity, then every 3rd minute sprint for 30 seconds OR the athlete could do a bush run that has hills or slopes and try to maintain their pace throughout the session. This type of training is beneficial for any sports where more than one energy system is used. For example, a soccer player will sprint for that through ball, jog back to get onside or defend by jockeying the opposition. Fartlek training could also be referred to as speedplay training.

Aerobic Interval Training

This training is kind of like fartlek but instead of the occasional high intensity periods – you have rest periods. So for example, an athlete may be required to run 3 sides of a football field within x* amount of time* minutes, but the 4th length of the field is the recovery period – where they have x*amount of time seconds to walk and recover. Usually when a coach uses this type of training, they will push the athlete to work at a higher intensity – because they have that rest period to recover. This therefore allows the athlete to develop both their aerobic and anaerobic fitness.

Circuit Training

This training involves participating in various exercises with little to no rest between each. Usually a “station” has a designated exercise, and once an individual has completed that station, they move off onto the next one with a different exercise. In circuit training, a station is usually completed by one of two ways: after a set period of time OR after a set number of reps. This form of training is good for athletes who want to experience variety (especially if they get bored easily) whilst keeping the heart rate up. Furthermore, circuit training can allow the athlete to develop both their aerobic and anaerobic systems in conjunction with developing their strength.

– Anaerobic

With anaerobic training, people exercise for a short time at a high intensity – at over 85% of an athlete’s maximum heart rate.

Anaerobic interval training is usually used as a form of anaerobic training. This type of training is very similar to the aerobic interval training, however it is at a higher intensity and the given rest periods are shorter. So for example, the athlete may work for 20 seconds at 90% intensity, then rest for 1 minute. In this example the work:rest ratio is 1:3, that is the rest time is 3x longer than the work time.

What this allows the athlete to do is practise and develop their anaerobic energy system. This is beneficial for athletes whose sport predominantly resides in the lactic acid system, as they can train their body to continue working and fight fatigue, despite the buildup of lactic acid in their muscle cells.

– Flexibility 

Flexibility refers to athletes being able to move their joints through their full range of motion.

There are various types of stretching an individual can do to increase their flexibility. These can include:

Static Stretching

This is the most common form of stretching, especially for children and novice athletes. This is because it is easy to perform and minimal risk is involved as the athlete can feel their own limitations. Furthermore, you would see this type of stretching predominantly used for warm ups and cool downs. It can also be used by individuals who have an injury and are trying to restore their range of movement and stretch the muscle.

Individuals performed by choosing the muscle to be stretched, lengthening that particular muscle to its limit (so feeling the pull where it is slightly uncomfortable but not in any way painful) and holding the stretch for 30 seconds.

Dynamic Stretching

In health, the term dynamic can mean “changing” or “moving”. Dynamic stretching is where the athlete uses a controlled movement to lengthen and shorten the muscles – usually mimicking the movement that will be performed within the sport or activity they are about to undertake. The stretch should not force the range of motion to exceed what is natural for that movement. This stretch is relatively safe, though can cause injuries if the athlete has not warmed up properly or tries to exceed their joints range of movement. Because dynamic stretching mimics the movement that will be used in the sport or activity, it is usually used in a warm up routine.

Ballistic Stretching

This stretch can be quite risky and should only be used by high level athletes. Ballistic stretching is when an athlete stretches past their natural range of motion by using the body’s momentum. So for example, when an athlete bends down to touch their toes, stretching their calves, then incorporates a bouncing type motion to further extend the stretch. The reason why this stretch is quite risky is because the athlete could cause injury by over stretching the muscle and tearing it. That said, ballistic stretching can be beneficial for athletes who know what they are doing as it can activate the myotatic reflex (or the stretch reflex). This is an involuntary muscle contraction which aims to prevent any tears or injury to a muscle if it is extended past it’s usual range of motion.

PNF Stretching

PNF stretching stands for Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation stretching. This usually requires another person to help perform the stretch, though can be done using a stable object if required. PNF stretching is when an athlete lengthens the muscle using a static stretch, then they push against the resistance for at least 10 seconds whilst the resistance is held/unchanged, then they rest. This is repeated several times for each muscle. This type of stretching should not cause any pain for the athlete. However, if the athlete does not communicate effectively with their partner, it may cause injuries as the partner may push the static stretch past their limitations.

Flexibility is an important component in an athlete’s health related fitness factors and has such benefits as:

Injury prevention

Reduced soreness of the individual’s muscles after the sport or activity

Increased coordination

AND the relaxation of muscles during and after the sport or activity

– Strength Training

Strength refers to how much a muscle can generate within one contraction. Strength training is an important element in an athlete’s overall training regime, especially for any sports which require creating force (such as a soccer kick), opposing force (such as tackling in rugby union), lifting a force (such as weight lifting) or holding/performing difficult movements (such as gymnastics). Strength training can involve working against a resistance in order to force the muscle to develop and get stronger. The process of developing the muscle to make it bigger and making the connective tissue around it more stable is called hypertrophy.

When talking about strength training, there is additional terminology that is important to use when understanding or developing a strength training session. These include:

Resistance: refers to weight or opposing another force

Rep/s: This stands for repetitions. Reps refers to how many of the movements against resistance you do without any rest

Set/s: This refers to the number of reps completed before rest

Rest: refers to taking a break

RM: This stands for repetition maximus. RM refers to the maximum weight you can lift in a specified rep. So for example, if a weight is so heavy that I can only lift it one and i would need a rest – it would be classified as 1RM. However, if I could lift it 15 times before I needed a rest – it would be 15RM.

There are four types of strength an individual can train to develop:

absolute: which is the maximum force a muscle can produce with a single effort

power: is force time speed. So for example, an elite sprinter has a lot of power because they can create a lot of force over a short period of time.

endurance: is measured by how many reps an individual can perform before fatigued or how many reps can be performed within a specified time frame.

relative strength: this refers to making the strength between two people of different size relative so fair comparison can be made.

For example if I could lift the same amount as Brent, despite our size difference, then I would have higher relative strength. This would also be the case if Brent could lift 120kg and I could lift only 115kg – because of our initial size difference, I would still have higher relative strength.

When creating a strength training regime, there are 3 types of resistance programs you could include:

Isokinetic – Exercises where there is a constant load during the entire process of the movement

Isotonic – Exercises that cause the muscles to lengthen and shorten

Isometric – Exercises that don’t change the length of muscles

There are a number of ways you can incorporate these 3 types in your strength training regime.

Free Weights

Free weights allow the user to complete an array of exercises, causing various kinds of contractions with the muscle groups. Kettleballs, medicine balls, barbells and dumbbells are generally are considered free weights and need to be used with caution, as poor technique can lead to injury.

Advantages include:

– effective

– wide range of exercises can be performed – providing variety

– allows greater range of movement

– exercise can closer resemble the movement required in sport/activity

– can vary resistance to suit strength needs

Disadvantages include:

– can be expensive

– high risk of injury when using poor technique

– time consuming if needing to change/load/unload different size weights

Own body weight

An individual’s own body weight can be used to develop their strength. This can include such exercises as planking, chin ups, burpee or box jumping.

Advantages include:

– effective

– not expensive

– portable

– allows greater range of movement

– exercise can closer resemble the movement required in sport/activity

Disadvantages include:

– depending on the exercise, it can be challenging for complete novice e.g. push up

– cannot vary resistance past a certain level e.g. can make box jumps higher – but can only jump so high

Fixed Weights (machine weights)

Machine weights are quite popular, as people can isolate the muscle groups they want to target. Free weights can help the user to adopt the correct posture, positioning and restrict movements, reducing the risk of injury. Furthermore, the user can choose and change the resistance with ease.

Advantages include:

– suitable and safe for beginners

– allows beginners to learn correct technique and make it habit before attempting free weights

– multiple exercises can be performed on the one machine

– greater weight can be applied with minimal increase in risk

Disadvantages include:

– expensive

– take up too much space

– for advanced weightlifters, the resistance may not be enough

– does not allow individual to use a wide range of muscle groups

Hydraulic Resistance

Resistance is continuous and stable throughout the whole movement. This allows both the agonist and antagonist muscle to work at the same time. For example, both the bicep and tricep would work during all stages of the movement. Although many fixed weights use hydraulic resistance, sometimes this is not the case and it is important to understand the two. Specially made hydraulic resistance machines are beneficial in that there is no “sticking point”. Sticking point refers to a certain part or angle of the movement being difficult – like the initial lift of a bicep curl.

Advantages include:

– stable resistance exists throughout the entire movement

– agonist and antagonist muscles are worked at the same time

– no sticking points

Disadvantages include:

– expensive

– does not allow individuals to use a wide range of muscle groups

Resistance Bands

These were traditionally used for rehabilitation purposes, however due to their convenience and portability, many athletes use them as a type of training. Resistance bands can work a wide range of muscle groups. Correct technique is important to ensure no injury occurs.

Advantages include:

– not expensive

– portable

– allows individuals to use a wide range of muscle groups

Disadvantages include:

– for advanced weightlifters, the resistance may not be enough

– poor technique can cause injury

Stability Balls

Stability balls (or gym balls) can also be used as a form of strength training. They focus on strengthening the core muscles of an individual. Many free weight exercises can be used in conjunction with a stability ball.

Advantages include:

– not expensive

– allows individuals to use a wide range of muscle groups

– portable

– can be used in conjunction with free weights

– good for beginners, especially when using own bodyweight as resistance

Disadvantages include:

– poor technique can cause injury, especially in conjunction with free weights

Example of linking these type of training methods to isokinetic, isotonic and isometric programs

Isokinetic = hydraulic

Isotonic = free weights, fixed weights, resistance bands, stability ball, own body weight

Isometric = resistance bands, stability ball, own body weight

Full Written Content

Critical Question 1: How does training affect performance?
Types of Training and Training Methods

Aerobic
Aerobic training usually follows the FITT principle.

Frequency
In order for aerobic training to be effective individuals need to train at least three times a week.

Intensity
There are a number of ways you can test intensity, including the talk test and exertion rating scale. However, the most reliable and most commonly used in method is by measuring the athlete’s heart rate during training.
When in aerobic training, the heart rate is typically fluctuating between 70 to 85 percent of the maximum HR. You can approximate your maximum heart rate by subtracting your age from 220. So for example, 220 minus 26 years equals 194 beats per minute.

Time 
In order for individuals to experience the benefits of aerobic fitness, a minimum of 20 minutes is recommended for each session.

Type
There are an array of training types, which people can use to achieve aerobic capacity, some of which are explored in greater detail below.

Continuous Training
Continuous training involves the individual working at a constant pace, continuously (without stopping) for an extended period of time. Sessions of at least 20 minutes of continuous training are needed for any benefits to occur. This type of training is particularly beneficial for athletes who participate in endurance sports like marathon runs or triathlons, where the best strategy is to ensure constant and consistent movement throughout competition.

Fartlek Training
Fartlek training consists of constant exercise with intermittent bursts of high intensity movements every session. For example, an athlete running at 65% intensity, then every 3rd minute sprinting for 30 seconds. Or an athlete could run through terrain with hills or slopes and attempting to consistently maintain their pace throughout the session.

This type of training is beneficial for any athletes who use more than one energy system, while competing. An example would be a soccer player who sprints for the ball, jogs back onside and then defends by jockeying the opposition. Fartlek training is sometimes referred to as speedplay training.

Aerobic Interval Training
Aerobic interval training resembles the fartlek method, with intermittent rest periods replacing occasional high intensity bursts. An athlete may be required to run 3 sides of a football field within a certain number of minutes and then spends the 4th length of the field in recovery, with a specified time allocated for walking and rest.

Typically, when a coach uses this type of training they push athletes to work at a higher intensity because they have the rest period to recover. This type of training allows the athlete to develop both their aerobic and anaerobic fitness.

Circuit Training
When circuit training an athlete completes various exercises with little to no rest between each ’station’. Each “station” has a designated exercise and once an individual has completed that area, they move onto the next one. A station is usually completed either a set period of time or after a set number of reps.

This form of training is effective for athletes who need variety in their training, due to their needs or propensity boredom, whilst keeping their heart rate up. Circuit training ensures that an athlete develops their aerobic, anaerobic and strength systems.

Anaerobic
With anaerobic training, athletes exercise for a short period at a high intensity at over 85% of their athlete’s maximum heart rate.

Anaerobic interval training is a common form of anaerobic training. This method of exercise is more intensive than aerobic interval training and the rest periods are shorter. So an athlete may work for 20 seconds at 90% intensity, then rest for 1 minute. In this example the work to rest ratio is 1:3; the rest time is 3x longer than the work time.

This type of training allows the athlete to test and develop their anaerobic energy system,. This is especially beneficial for athletes whose sport predominantly effects their lactic acid system as they can train their body to continue working while also fighting fatigue, despite the buildup of lactic acid in their muscle cells.

Flexibility
Flexibility refers to the range of motion of joints and muscles. There are various types of stretching an individual can do to increase their flexibility, some of which are described below:

Static Stretching
This is the most common form of stretching, especially for children and novice athletes. It is easy to perform and involves minimal risk as athletes can sense and work within their own limitations. This type of stretching is predominantly used for warm ups and cool downs. It can also be used by individuals who have an injury and are trying to restore their full range of movement, while gently stretching the muscle.

Individuals perform a static stretch by identifying the muscle and then lengthening to its (and their) limit. The idea is to feel a pull or strain, which is slightly uncomfortable but not in any way painful, and then hold the stretch for 30 seconds.

Dynamic Stretching
In health, the term dynamic is used to describe actions of “changing” or “moving”. Dynamic stretching involves using a controlled movement to lengthen and shorten the muscles, usually by mimicking a movement that will be performed regularly in the sport or activity they are about to participate in. The stretch should not force the range of motion to exceed what is natural for that particular movement.

This stretch is relatively safe, although injuries may occur if the athlete has not warmed up properly or attempts to exceed the range of movement of their joints. Because dynamic stretching mimics the movement that will be used in the sport or activity, it is usually incorporated into a warm up routine.

Ballistic Stretching
This is a high risk stretch and should only be used by high level athletes. Ballistic stretching consists of stretching a muscle past its natural range of motion using the body’s momentum. For example, if an athlete bends down to touch their toes, stretching their calves, and then incorporates a bouncing type motion to further extend the stretch. This risk factor is high because an athlete could cause injury to themselves by over stretching the muscle causing a tear.

Ballistic stretching can be beneficial for experienced athletes who want to activate the myotatic (or the stretch) reflex. This is an involuntary muscle contraction which can prevent tears or injury to a muscle which is extended beyond the usual range of motion.

PNF Stretching
PNF, or Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation stretching, requires a second person or static object to help perform the stretch. This method involves lengthening the muscle with a static stretch and then pushing against a consistant resisting force for at least 10 seconds before resting. This process is repeated several times for each muscle.

PNF stretching should not cause any pain. However, if the athlete does not communicate effectively with their partner injuries can occur as static stretch may be pushed beyond the athlete’s limitations.

Flexibility is an important component of an athlete’s fitness regime and can benefit their overall health by:

  • Preventing injury
  • Reducing the muscle soreness after sport or activity
  • Increasing coordination
  • Relaxing the muscles during and after sport or activity

Strength Training

Strength refers to how much force or energy a muscle can generate within one contraction. Strength training is an integral element in an athlete’s overall training regime, especially for those who participate in sports, which require creating force (a soccer kick), opposing force (tackling in rugby union), lifting a force (weight lifting) or holding/performing difficult movements (gymnastics).

Strength training typically involves working against a resisting force to develop muscle strength. This process, of developing the muscle to make it bigger and making the connective tissue around it more stable, is called hypertrophy.

There are a range of terms which are used to describe different elements of strength training and which are used when building and planning sessions. These include:

– Resistance: A weight or opposing force
– Rep/s: Short for repetitions, the number of reps describe to how many of the movements must be completed without any rest
– Set/s: The number of reps for each exercise, which should be completed before rest
– Rest: A recovery break, usually between sets.
– RM: RM (repetition maximus) refers to the maximum weight an individual can lift or reps they can complete before they need rest. So for example, if a weight is so heavy that it can only be lifted it once by an athlete it would be classified as 1RM. However, if it could be lifted 15 times before rest is needed it would be 15RM.

There are four types of strength an individual develop during training:

– Absolute: The maximum force a muscle can produce in a single movement
– Power: The force generated for speed. An elite sprinter has a lot of power because they can create a lot of force over a short period of time.
– Endurance: is measured by how many reps an individual can perform before they become fatigued or how many reps can be performed within a specified time frame.
– Relative Strength: The process involved in making a fair comparison between two people of different size. Athletes of smaller stature or weight, who can lift the same weight as taller or heavier individuals have a higher relative strength.

When creating a strength training regime, there are 3 types of resistance programs which could be included:

– Isokinetic: Exercises involving a constant load during the entire process of movement
– Isotonic: Exercises which cause the muscles to lengthen and shorten
– Isometric: Exercises which don’t alter the length of muscles

There are a number of ways you can incorporate these 3 types of resistance in your strength training regime.

Free Weights
Free weights allow the user to complete an array of exercises, causing various kinds of contractions within different muscle groups. Kettle bells, medicine balls, barbells and dumbbells are all examples of free weights and need to be used with caution, as poor technique can lead to injury.

The advantages of free weights include the fact that they are effective for building strength and provide variety as they can be incorporated into a wide range of exercises. Free weights also ensure that athletes experience a greater range of movement. The exercises can closely resemble the movement required for a number of sports and activities and it is easy to adjust resistance to suit different strength needs.

The disadvantages of free weights are the cost, a high risk of injury (usually resulting from poor technique and the time needed to change, load and unload different sized weights.

Own body weight
An individual’s own body weight can be used to develop their strength. Exercises like planking, chin ups, burpee or box jumping all use body weight resistance.

Using the weight of the body as a form of resistance for strength training is effective, and inexpensive. Because no expensive equipment is needed, Athletes can complete training anywhere. Just like free weight training, this method incorporates a range of exercises, which can mimic the movements required particular sports and activities.

Depending on the exercise, it can be challenging for complete novices to correctly perform body weight training. The resistance is also only effective up to a point, Once an athlete has reached their peak they cannot improve their performance. For example, an athlete can only jump so high.

Fixed Weights (machine weights)
Machine weights are popular, as they allow people to isolate the muscle groups they want to improve. Fixed weights can help athletes to adopt the correct postures or positioning and restrict their movements, reducing the risk of injury. Additionally, the user can easily choose and change the resistance.

Training with fixed weights has several advantages. It is suitable and safe for beginners, enabling them to learn correct technique and make it habit before attempting to exercise with free weights. Training with fixed weights also allows individual to complete multiple exercises can be performed on the one machine and apply greater weight with minimal increase in risk.

However, fixed weights are also expensive and take up a lot of space. For advanced weightlifters, the resistance may not be enough. This type of training also does not provide athletes with an opportunity to exercise a wide range of muscle groups.

Hydraulic Resistance
During hydraulic resistance training resistance is continuous and stable throughout the entire movement, working both the agonist and antagonist muscle. For example, strengthening both the bicep and tricep muscles during all stages of the movement.

Although many fixed weights use hydraulic resistance, this is not always the case so it is important to understand both methods. Specially made hydraulic resistance machines are beneficial in that there is no “sticking point”. A sticking point is specific part or angle of a movement, which is difficult, like the initial lift of a bicep curl.

The advantages of hydraulic resistance training include the fact that resistance is stable throughout, agonist and antagonist muscles are developed at the same time and there are no sticking points.

Conversely, this type of training requires expensive equipment and does not allow individuals to use a wide range of muscle groups.

Resistance Bands
Resistance bands were traditionally used for rehabilitation purposes, however due to their convenience and portability, many athletes now incorporate them into their training. Resistance bands can work a wide range of muscle groups, however, to avoid injury it is important to use correct technique.

Resistance bands are inexpensive, portable and can be used to develop a wide range of muscle groups. Athletes who trainwith bands must be aware that poor technique can lead to injury and advanced weightlifters may find that the resistance is not enough.

 

Stability Balls
Stability balls (or gym balls) can also be used to develop strenth. This form of training focuses on strengthening the core muscles. Many free weight exercises can be used in conjunction with a stability ball.

Like resistance bands, stability balls are popular because they are portable, inexpensive and can be used to develop and strengthen a range of muscle groups. This form of training is suitable for beginners, especially when using own bodyweight as resistance, and can be combined with free weight exercises. However, exercising with poor technique can cause injury, especially if used in conjunction with free weights