Principles of training – Improving PDHPE
Study Notes

– Progressive Overload

In order to have improvements in the training, there needs to be progressive overload. As the training goes along, the body will change. When the changes occur, the training has to be increased to ensure the body is pushed past what it can currently handle in order for more gains to take shape.

This needs to be a steady increase to ensure athletes are not becoming injured or experience fatigue. Overload is obtained by boosting duration, repetition, resistance, intensity, frequency, etc.

Load is too high – means faster onset of fatigue and risk of injury

Load is too low – means no adaptations transpire

Usually, Endurance adaptations are the slowest to be seen.

– Training Thresholds

These are the training zone’s upper limits; when they’re passed, the athlete goes to another level.

With the aerobic threshold is about 70 percent of the max heart rate (MHR), which is sufficient to result in training effect.

Aerobic training zone happens when the athlete works between the aerobic and anaerobic thresholds.

The anaerobic threshold (Onset Blood Lactate Accumulation or Lactate transition 2) is about 85 percent of MHR. Any workouts beyond this increases the lactic acid, resulting in fatigue and ending the exercise.

Working between the aerobic threshold and anaerobic threshold is referred to as “working in the aerobic training zone”.

Aerobic Training – The productivity of the cardiorespiratory system is enhanced if the athlete trains closer to the anaerobic threshold than the aerobic threshold. Training at this intensity increases the capacity and operation of cardiovascular system

Strength Training – greater gains in strength are made when the level of resistance is progressively increased. Training for absolute strength – the training threshold is represented by high resistance/load ensuring that only repetitions can be completed. If training for strength endurance, the training threshold is characterised by quality, with high number of reps being required to effectively challenge the threshold

– Reversibility

Once training has ceased, the physiological adaptations that have been added start to reverse – that is, the improvements made start to decline. “Use it, or lose it” is a tag line used by some coaches to illustrate the effects of reversibility. Endurance results often take longer to lose than strength. It is common for this principle to take place in the off-season, during injury or just an extended break if training reduces.

– Specificity

The exercise must be specific for the muscles, energy systems and movement patterns necessary for the sport. The activities need to reflect the goals and needs of the athlete. The greatest gains can be seen in athletes that train movements, energy systems and muscle groups required for their chosen sport and resemble the movement seen in games.

– Variety

If you do the same exercise over and over, it can cause boredom to ensue and result in reduced training efforts. Thus, make sure the training has all kinds of activities, settings, drills and training types. Eg. mixing, aerobic training with resistance training.

– Warm Up and Cool Down

Warm ups tend to last at least 15 minutes, and integrate a basic warm-up followed by a more specific one. The aim is to prepare the body mentally and physically for optimal performance.

A basic warmup involves aerobic activities such as running with dynamic stretching. An important part of the warmup is to include sport related activities.

Cool downs are important to aid in the active recovery process. This process includes low-intensity exercise that allows blood lactate levels to reduce as well as seeing a reduction in muscle soreness.

Full Written Notes

Critical Question 1: How does training affect performance?
Principles of Training

Progressive Overload

If athletes want to continue to experience improvements as a result of their training they must incorporate progressive overload. Training alters the body and when these changes occur, the training must to be increased to ensure that the body is consistently and continuously challenged so that further gains can be achieved.

To ensure that training does not result in injury or fatigue, a steady increase is necessary. Overload can be obtained by boosting the duration, repetition, resistance, intensity, frequency and other elements of exercise. If the training load is too high there can be a faster onset of fatigue and a higher risk of injury. If the load is too low improvements to fitness may stall or even decrease.

The benefits of progressive overload may not be immediately apparent with endurance training having the slowest results.

Specificity

Exercises should target the muscles, energy systems and movement patterns specific to an individual’s sport. The activities should reflect the goals and needs of the athlete. Incorporating exercises which mimic movements of the activity or target the muscle groups most commonly used will result in the greatest gains in performance.

Reversibility

Once training is over the adaptations that were made are susceptible to a reversible effect. What occurs is a de-training effect, which causes the physiological gains of training to be reversed. Think of the popular phrase, “use it, or lose it”.

Endurance results often remain for longer than gains in strength training. The reversibility principle typically affects athletes during off-season, injury or extended breaks in training.

Variety

It is important to include variety when training by mixing different types of activities, settings, drills and training types. For example, by mixing, aerobic exercises with resistance training. If athletes perform the same exercise over and over, it can cause boredom and demotivation.

Training Thresholds

Thresholds are the upper limits of each training zone. When an athlete overcomes threshold they can advance to the next level of training. For example, the aerobic threshold occurs when an athlete achieves 70 percent of their maximum heart rate (MHR), which is sufficient to result in improvements. The aerobic training zone is situated between the anaerobic and aerobic thresholds.

The anaerobic (Onset Blood Lactate Accumulation or Lactate transition 2) threshold sits at about 85 percent of an individual’s MHR. Workouts with higher intensity than this stimulate the production of lactic acid in the body, resulting in fatigue, which may cause the athlete or coach to terminate the session earlier than intended.

Aerobic Training
Working at the anaerobic threshold increases the capacity and function of the cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory systems.

Strength Training
Strength gains are made when resistance is progressively increased. Training for absolute strength – threshold represented by high resistance/load ensuring that only few repetitions can be completed. If training for strength endurance, threshold is represented in terms of quality, with high number of reps being required to effectively challenge threshold

Warm Up and Cool Down

Warm ups typically last for about 20 minutes, incorporating a basic warm-up then a more specific one. The goal is to prepare the body mentally and physically for the activity ahead.

A basic warmup may involve running, dynamic stretching or aerobic activities. An effective warm up will include activities, which target and prepare the muscle and cardio systems which will be used by the athlete when competing.

Performing cool down exercises facilitates the process of active recovery. Typically, a cool down will involve a low-intensity exercise so that blood lactate levels and the risk of muscle soreness are reduced.