Core 2: Factors Affecting Performance

In this topic you will learn about …

The unit is broken up into 4 critical questions:

Critical Question 1: How does training affect performance?

Critical Question 2: How can psychology affect performance?

Critical Question 3: How can nutrition and recovery strategies affect performance?

Critical Question 4: How does the acquisition of skill affect performance?

By the syllabus breaking up the topics into critical questions, you are able to explore the unit more efficiently as the dot points all aim to help answer each critical question. It is so important that you learn the syllabus back to front and know each dot point as well as from what part of the syllabus it is from.

By clicking on the links below you can start to explore each critical question’s dot point. We will be adding more notes, videos and study tips as time goes by.

Critical Question 1: How does training affect performance?

Learn about: Energy systems

– alactacid system (ATP/PC)

– lactic acid system

– aerobic system

Learn to: Analyse each energy system by exploring:

– source of fuel

– efficiency of ATP production

– duration that the system can operate

– cause of fatigue

– by-products of energy production

– process and rate of recovery

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Learn about: Types of training and training methods

– aerobic, eg continuous, Fartlek, aerobic, interval, circuit

– anaerobic, eg anaerobic interval

– flexibility, eg static, ballistic, PNF, dynamic

– strength training, eg free/fixed weights, elastic, hydraulic

Learn to: Assess the relevance of the types of training and training methods for a variety of sports by asking questions such as:

– which types of training are best suited to different sports?

– which training method(s) would be most appropriate? Why?

– how would this training affect performance?

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Learn about: Principles of training

– progressive overload

– specificity

– reversibility

– variety

– training thresholds

– warm up and cool down

Learn to: Analyse how the principles of training can be applied to both aerobic and resistance training

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Learn about: Physiological adaptations in response to training

– resting heart rate

– stroke volume and cardiac output

– oxygen uptake and lung capacity

– haemoglobin level

– muscle hypertrophy

– effect on fast/slow twitch muscle fibres

Learn to: Examine the relationship between the principles of training, physiological adaptations and improved performance

Critical Question 2: How can psychology affect performance?


Critical Question 3: How can nutrition and recovery strategies affect performance?

Learn about: Nutritional considerations

– pre-performance, including carbohydrate loading

– during performance

– post-performance

Learn to: Compare the dietary requirements of athletes in different sports considering pre-, during and post- performance needs

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Learn about: Supplementation

– vitamins/minerals

– protein

– caffeine

– creatine products

Learn to: Critically analyse the evidence for and against supplementation for improved performance

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Learn about: Recovery strategies

– physiological strategies, eg cool down, hydration

– neural strategies, eg hydrotherapy, massage

– tissue damage strategies, eg cryotherapy

– psychological strategies, eg relaxation

Learn to: Research recovery strategies to discern their main features and proposed benefits to performance


Critical Question 4: How does the acquisition of skill affect performance?

Learn about: Stages of skill acquisition

– cognitive

– associative

– autonomous

Learn to: Examine the stages of skill acquisition by participating in the learning of a new skill, eg juggling, throwing with the non-dominant arm

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Learn about: Characteristics of the learner, eg personality, heredity, confidence, prior experience, ability

Learn to: Describe how the characteristics of the learner can influence skill acquisition and the performance of skills

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Learn about: The learning environment

– nature of the skill (open, closed, gross, fine, discrete, serial, continuous, self-paced, externally paced)

– the performance elements (decision-making, strategic and tactical development)

– practice method (massed, distributed, whole, part)

– feedback (internal, external, concurrent, delayed, knowledge of results, knowledge of performance)

Learn to: Design a suitable plan for teaching beginners to acquire a skill through to mastery. The plan should reflect:

– appropriate practice methods for the learners

– the integration of relevant performance elements

– an awareness of how instruction may vary according to characteristics of the learner

– how feedback will be used as learners progress through the stages of skill acquisition

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Learn about: Assessment of skill and performance

– characteristics of skilled performers, eg kinaesthetic sense, anticipation, consistency, technique

– objective and subjective performance measures

– validity and reliability of tests

– personal versus prescribed judging criteria

Learn to: Develop and evaluate objective and subjective performance measures to appraise performance